Periodontics is one of the specialized branch of dentistry that deals with the treatment of soft (periodontal ligament and gingiva) and hard (cementum and alveolar bone) periodontal tissue surrounding the teeth and allow their stability in the dental arch.

Periodontal disease has been known under the name of periodontal disease and periodontitis, and includes a variety of gingivitis and periodontitis. Development of the disease begins with the accumulation of plaque and bacteria due to poor oral hygiene and resultant acute and chronic infections of periodontal tissue. The consequence of untreated surface tissue inflammation (gingivitis) is its expansion into the deeper tissues (periodontitis). Additional factors that worsen the disease as smoking, untreated diabetes, stress, pregnancy and heritage. The first signs of the disease occur when one or more parts of the periodontal not do its job.

The first signs of the disease are redness and bleeding gums (gingivitis), bad breath, and increased sensitivity of the teeth and gums, which are manifested during brushing or chewing hard foods. Treatment of initial infection is curettage, which eliminate deposits (plaque) and inflammatory content, and daily good oral hygiene.

When the disease is not treated from the start, followed by the development of inflammation, destruction of periodontal linking tooth roots with bones, bone loss with the emergence of pockets, pulling the gums with the advent of the recession and the consequent mobility of the teeth and their loss. In this advanced phase of disease therapy is one of the surgical procedures that seek to stop further deterioration of bone structure and its renewal. By eliminating inflammatory deposits and pockets around the teeth is periodontal rebuild and strengthen the teeth.